Sufi Saint from the Chisti Order
Baba Sheikh Farid Sharganj (1173 - 1266)
Fariduddin Masud was born in 1179 or 1188 AD (584 Hijri) at village Kothewal, 10 km from Multan in the Punjab region of what is now Pakistan, to JamÄl-ud-dÄ«n SuleimÄn and Maryam BÄ«bÄ« (Qarsum BÄ«bÄ«), daughter of Sheikh WajÄ«h-ud-dÄ«n KhojendÄ«. He was one of the founding fathers of the Chishti Sufi order.
Farid’s lineage is traced back to the second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. Though he is the grandson of Ibrahim ibn Adham, Baba Farid received his early education at Multan, which had become a centre for Muslim education; it was there that he met his Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a noted Sufi saint, who was passing through Multan on his way from Baghdad to Delhi. Upon completing his education, FarÄ«d left for Sistan and Kandahar and went to Makkah for the Hajj pilgrimage with his parents at the age of 16.
Once his education was over, he moved to Delhi, where he learned the Islamic doctrine from his master, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki. He later moved to Hansi, Haryana. When Quá¹buddÄ«n BakhtiyÄr KÄkÄ« died in 1235, FarÄ«d left Hansi and became his spiritual successor, and he settled in Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan, Pakistan) instead of Delhi. On his way to Ajodhan, while passing through Faridkot, he met the 20-year-old NizÄmuddÄ«n, who went on to become his disciple, and later his successor Sufi khalÄ«fah.
The great Arab traveller Ibn Battuta once visited this Sufi saint. Ibn Battuta says that Fariduddin Ganjshakar was the spiritual guide of the King of India, and that the King had given him the village of Ajodhan. He also met Baba Farid’s two sons.
Baba Farid’s descendants, also known as Fareedi, Fareedies or Faridy, mostly carry the name FÄrÅ«qÄ«, and can be found in Pakistan, India and the diaspora. Fariduddin Ganjshakar’s descendants include the Sufi saint Salim Chishti, whose daughter was the Emperor Jehangir’s foster mother. Their descendants settled in Sheikhupur, Badaun and the remains
f a fort they built can still be found. One of his descendants was the noted Sufi scholar Muhibbullah Allahabadi (1587â€“1648).
Fariduddin Ganjshakar’s shrine darbÄr is located in Pakpattan.
One of FarÄ«d’s most important contributions to Punjabi literature was his development of the language for literary purposes. Whereas Sanskrit, Arabic, Turkish and Persian had historically been considered the languages of the learned and the elite, and used in monastic centres, Punjabi was generally considered a less refined folk language. Although earlier poets had written in a primitive Punjabi, before FarÄ«d there was little in Punjabi literature apart from traditional and anonymous ballads. By using Punjabi as the language of poetry, FarÄ«d laid the basis for a vernacular Punjabi literature that would be developed later.
The city of Faridkot bears his name. According to legend, FarÄ«d stopped by the city, then named MokhalpÅ«r, and sat in seclusion for forty days near the fort of King Mokhal. The king was said to be so impressed by his presence that he named the city after Baba Farid, which today is known as Tilla Baba Farid. The festival BÄbÄ Sheikh FarÄd Ä€gman Purb MelÄ’ is celebrated in September each year from (21â€“23 Sep, 3 days), commemorating his arrival in the city. Ajodhan was also renamed as FarÄ«d’s ‘PÄk Pattan’, meaning ‘Holy Ferry’; today it is generally called PÄk Pattan SharÄ«f.
Faridia Islamic University, a religious madrassa in Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan, is named after him, and in July 1998, the Punjab Government in India established the Baba Farid University of Health Sciences at Faridkot, the city which itself was named after him, Retrieved 10 Jan 2016
There are various explanations of why Baba Farid was given the title Shakar Ganj(‘Treasure of Sugar’). One legend says his mother used to encourage the young FarÄ«d to pray by placing sugar under his prayer mat. Once, when she forgot, the young FarÄ«d found the sugar anyway, an experience that gave him more spiritual fervour and led to his being given the name.